A pioneer in values

Today, we understand more about the nature and relationship of human values thanks to the work of social psychologist, Shalom H. Schwartz, who pioneered the Theory of Basic Human Values.

His research has been published internationally in journals of social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, developmental psychology, political psychology, sociology, education, law, and economics. 

Across 80 countries

Schwartz has collaborated with over 150 researchers who have already applied his theories and methods for measuring values in more than 80 countries.

A framework for values

A framework organized across 10 value themes and 57 individual values that are fundamental to human motivation.

The dynamics of values

Schwartz also theorizes that values form a motivational continuum. Values that are adjacent to each other are complementary, and values that are opposite each other are conflicting. 

Validity: hundreds of studies and plenty of peer-review

Feel free to dive into the 200+ studies on ResearchGate. However, if you are new to the research, you may want to start with the overview of the Theory of Basic Human Values.

However, professionals are often really interested in validity–in how the values in this framework are associated in meaningful, predictable ways with other variables. And, we'd like to call your attention to these 13 studies in particular:

Schwartz, S. H. (2015). Basic individual values: Sources and consequences. In D. Sander and T. Brosch (Eds.), Handbook of value (pp.63-84). Oxford: UK, Oxford University Press.

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries.  In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25) (pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press. doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6

Schwartz, S.H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: Applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J.M. Olson, & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), The Psychology of Values: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 8 (pp.1-24). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Reprinted in: Faculty de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales (2001). Psicodebate 2, Psicologia, Cultura y Sociedad(pp.119-144), Buenos Aires: Universidad de Palermo.

Barnea, M., & Schwartz, S.H. (1998). Values and voting. Political Psychology, 19, 17-40.

Boehnke, K., Schwartz, S. H., Stromberg, C., & Sagiv, L. (1998). The structure and dynamics of worry: Theory, measurement, and cross-national replications. Journal of Personality, 66,745-782. doi/10.1111/1467-6494.00031

Ros, M., Schwartz, S.H., & Surkiss, S. (1999). Basic Individual values, work values, and the meaning of work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 49-71.

Schwartz, S. H., Sagiv, L., & Boehnke, K. (2000).  Worries and values. Journal of Personality, 68, 309-346.

Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (2000). Value priorities and subjective well-being: Direct relations and congruity effects. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 177-198.

Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S. H., & Knafo, A. (2002). The Big Five personality factors and personal values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 789-801. doi:10.1177/0146167202289008

Bardi, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, ­29, 1207-1220. doi:10.1177/0146167203254602

Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (2004). Values, intelligence and client behavior in career counseling: A field study European Journal of Psychology of Education, 3, 237-254.

Schwartz, S. H. (2007). Cultural and individual value correlates of capitalism: A comparative analysis. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 52-57.

Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (2007). Cultural values in organizations: Insights for Europe. European Journal of International Management, 1, 176-190.